Lawachara

Lawachara National Park is a nature reserve in Bangladesh. This park is located at Kamalganj Upazila, Maulvi Bazar District in the northeastern area of the country. It is located within the 2,740 ha (27.4 km2) West Bhanugach Reserved Forest. Srimongol is an exact place from where you can go to this place easily.

Lawachara National Park covers the Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests and varied deciduous forests of the Tropical moist broad leaf forests Biome. Bangladesh government declared Lawachara as a national park on July 7 in 1996 under the wildlife Act 1974.

Biological mixture in the Lawachara National Park has 460 species of  plants, amphibian, reptile, bird, mammal, and insects. One of this is the critically rare western hoolock gibbons of which only 70 individuals remain in the region.

The forest of Lawachara is a mixed type with the under story usually composed of evergreens including medicine plants as Quercus,Dillenia, Syzygium, Gmelina, Grewia and Ficus. The upper canopy, meanwhile, is mainly composed of tall deciduous trees including Artocarpus chaplasha,Tectona grandis, Hopea odorata and Tetrameles Toona ciliata and Pygenum. The original indigenous is mixed with tropical evergreen vegetation had been removed or replaced in the 1920.  In the undergrowth are bamboo groves of jai bansh (Bambusa burmanica) and muli bansh (Melocanna baccifera), as well as several fern species and other plants.

159 plant species belong to 123 genera but 60 families were studied in 2010. It has 78 species of trees, 14 species of shrubs, 42 species of herbs and 25 species of climbers. Syzygium (brush cherries) and Ficus (fig trees) each with 7 species were the most diverse genera. Notable genera include Dioscorea (yams), , Piper (pepper vines), Terminalia,  Artocarpus, Calamus (rattan palm), Alpinia, and Curcuma. Threatened indigenous plant species include Bridelia retusa, Zanthoxylum rhetsa, Alstonia scholaris, Phyllanthus emblica, Semocarpus anacardium, Cassia fistula, Orexylum indicum and Garuga pinnata .

In Lawachara there are the Northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina), slow lories (Nycticebus), capped languor (Trachypithecus pileatus),  rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis),  Phayre’s leaf monkeys (Trachypithecus phayrei), western hoolock gibbons (Hoolock), Dholes (Cuon alpinus), golden jackals (Canis aureus), Asian black bear is rare now (Ursus thibetanus), yellow-throated martens (Martes flavigula), tigers (Panthera tigris), fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), clouded leopard, wild pigs (Sus scrofa), sambar (Rusa unicolor), barking deer (Muntiacus) and Indian giant squirrels (Ratufa indica).

The western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) is a higher ape found in Bangladesh. There are one of the top 25 most endangered primates and one of the six non-human primate species in Lawachara. In a census in 2007, only 62 individuals were in 17 groups in Lawachara , the greater West Bhanugach Reserved Forest. This is the biggest surviving gibbon population of Bangladesh. The Lawachara population is considered of serious significance as it is likely to be the last possible population of western hoolock gibbons that will live into the next century.